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Marmalade Care Ltd

Vitamin B12 Deficiency

It is thought that this effects around 6 in every 100 people under 60 years old and 20 in every 100  people over 60 years old .

There are a lot of different symptoms 

Tingling and numbness in limbs

Lack of coordination 


Problems with vision 

When the problems are not treated it can come across very much like Dementia 

In some cases a limited diet of meat, eggs  and dairy for example in vegans and vegetarians may result in insufficient B12

In some cases the body is unable to absorb B12 this is due to certain genetic conditions such as pernicious anemia or from taking medication such as metformin.

If treated early enough the symptoms of vitamin B12 can be reversed through supplements, injections and changes in diet.

The help line for Pernicious Anemia is 01656 769717

Marina Barker 


This is a rare form of Dementia that begins by affecting your vision it is also called Bensons syndrome 

It is caused by damage to the brain cells at the back of the brain .

The part that processes information from your eyes and makes sense of what you see.

Alzheimers disease is often the cause of brain cell damage in PCA but it can be caused by Dementia with Lewy bodies and in rare cases it can be caused by Corticobasal syndrome or Creutzfield-jacob disease.

Alzheimers disease normally affects your memory first PCA starts with your vision 

normally this would develop between the ages of 50-65 how many people it affects around the world is not known.

Symptoms of PCA

Things appear to have unusual  ,a client of mine complains that her brown walking stick is green and her hands are always turning red !

Objects are not recognisable and sometimes float around in front of you.

A puddle can look like a hole in the ground.

When you turn and walk away from an object you can sometimes still see it but then again you might not see things in front of you and walk straight in to them.

Trying to cross a road becomes problematic and not being able to recognise faces and object.

Can you imagine how stressful this must be.

Bright lights are often uncomfortable people with Dementia often sit in the dark with the curtains shut because they don't like the light.

Life expectancy with PCA is 8-12 years from diagnosis similar to Alzheimer's disease.

At the moment there are no specific treatments to stop or slow PCA but as with other types of dementia there are medicines to treat the symptoms they are called Cholinesterase inhibitors.

These medicines help the brain cells to communicate  with each other.

Im sure most of you who know someone with Dementia will recognise these names 





These are the 4 Cholinesterase inhibitors

You can read up on PCA on Alzheimer's research uk 

Marina Barker

Vascular Dementia

Vascular Dementia is a common form of Dementia caused by a reduced blood flow to the brain a mini stroke where the blood supply to the brain is blocked off or lots of mini strokes these are called transient ischaemic or TIAs  attacks that cause widespread damage to the brain there is no cure for this as you cant replace the brain cells that have disappeared before the diagnosis but a medicines and a health life style may slow it down .

It is estimated there are 150.000 people affected in the UK.


Difficulty making plans 

Problems with concentration 

Changes in behaviour 

Feeling disorientated and confused 

Difficulty walking and balance 

Though there is no cure eating a healthy diet 

Stopping smoking 

Cutting down on alcohol

Taking medicines such as those to treat blood clots, high blood pressure and lowe cholesterol can help 



Imagine you have a bookcase with several shelves

each shelf is packed with books and each book is a memory about your life it is about people you have met and places you have been memories happy or sad are in all these books.

the shelves are stages in your life starting at the bottom .

shelf number 1 bottom shelf

memories of when you were a child

shelf number 2

memories of your school ,college maybe even university.

shelf number 3

starting out in your chosen career.

shelf number 4

your first love ,getting married.

shelf number 5

having children.

shelf number 6

your children getting married and having children.

shelf number 7 top shelf

your retirement years .

Now imagine someone comes along and shakes the bookcase so hard that some of the books fall out .

Notice that more books fall out from the top shelves then they do from the bottom .

Not forgetting these books are your memories .

shelf number 7

the top shelf is almost empty

the shelf that holds your day today memories your memories of now !

so you cant remember who people are or where you are.

you are not familiar with your surroundings as you do not remember them .

shelf number 6

the shelf has a lot of books missing your memories of your children getting married of you becoming a grandparent .

so your not quite sure why they are there because who are they you do not know or remember them.

shelf number 5

you may have forgotten who your children are because the book of memories fell out of the bookcase .

shelf number 4

the book is missing from when you got married its gone it fell out ,the man in your house could be an intruder because you have no idea who he is.

shelf number 3

there a few books left here you clearly remember your days working at the bank and your achievements there and that you were there for 5 years .

but you don't know what you did after that because that book fell out .

Shelf number 2

there are books here and there on this shelf you can remember you went to college and that you studied accounts ,your school days and friends are still there but only sometimes because that book of memories is teetering on the edge of the shelf and is about to fall out.

shelf number 1

this shelf is almost full you remember your brothers and sisters and your parents and you spend all day wondering where they are and why there not looking for you





Sundowning is also known as late-day confusion and is a form of Alzheimer's and other related forms of dementia .

Sundowning is not a disease but a group of symptoms effecting the person living with dementia.

This normally occurs late afternoon and carries on into the night .

the person will become confused and angry and it always seems to be as daylight fades and in the middle stages of dementia .

Some scientists believe that your body clock is affected by dementia and the part of your brain that recognizes when your asleep and when your awake breaks down.

These are a few things that might help

Avoid stimulant's




Sweets and chocolate

Try to keep outings and appointments earlier in the day

Close the curtains and turn the lights out in the evening .

Make afternoons quite and calm .

Limit food intake in the evening to a snack rather than a hefty meal .


Dementia pugilistica punch drunk syndrome

This is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repeated head injuries,

such as constant blows to the head and or repeated concussion .

this used to be called punch drunk syndrome or dementia pugilistica it is very common in boxers .

the disease usually begins several years after repeated blow to the head.


Changes in mood

Difficulty thinking (cognitive impairment )

Impulsive behavior

Short term memory loss

as the disease progresses ,slurred speech (dysarthria)

Significant memory loss

Parkinsonism symptoms

Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)

there is no cure

This diagnosis will be treated with pain management and behavioral therapy to help with mood swings ,difficulty planning and carrying out tasks which will affect daily living as in personal care ,social interaction and general wellbeing.

The seven stages of Dementia 

no impairment 

everyone starts at stage 1 there are no symptoms of impairment and functions are normal


very mild cognitive decline 

this can vary between age related problems that most seniors face such as forgetting things (dates,places ect.)

some of the signs of this stage 

forgetting everyday phrases

forgetting things like where you put your keys .

mild cognitive decline

this is where symptoms for dementia or Alzheimer's can be come more apparent  to family and friends 

it will not have a big impact on everyday life 

you may notice 

problems with complex tasks

memory loss, forgetfulness 

diminished work performance 

getting lost 

difficulty driving 



Moderate cognitive decline 

This is sometimes described as early onset Dementia or Alzheimer's

Symptons are more noticeable and the person concerned should be seeing a health professional

Symptoms may include 

Social withdrawal 


Non responsive   

Trouble with tasks


Moderately severe cognitive decline 

The person concerned is now likely to need help with everyday tasks such as washing and dressing 

you may need a home carer 

Symptoms can include 



Memory loss i.e. personal details

Reduced mental ability for problem solving .


Severe cognitive decline 

Also known as middle stage Dementia or Alzheimer's 

The person concerned will now need help with daily activities such as using the bathroom or eating 

Symptoms may include 

Difficulty sleeping 

Increased paranoia 



Difficulty recognizing loved ones 


Very severe cognitive decline 

 Described as late stage Dementia or Alzheimer's

The person concerned is now unable to care for themselves 

They may lose the power to walk or speak





 In the past it was believed that all dementia was the same this is not so only recently has it been that distinct disorders such as Semantic Dementia it is related to frontotemporal dementia it is a progressive loss of the ability to remember words ,faces and objects this is from the shrinkage of the temporal lobe in the brain.

the problem usually starts with words people will forget the names of things like calling milk water a dog a cat they may also have problems understanding what is said.

people also have difficulty recognizing faces of the people they see all the time

they will find it hard to recognize objects.

people might become self centered not bothering about other peoples feelings becoming preoccupied with certain activities having a fixed routine daily .

the person cannot change there behavior as it is due to the damage that is effecting there brain cells.

people will normally stay physically well but may become slower as the disease progresses.

this condition normally happens to people between 50 and 65 years of age .there is no cure but certain medication can help with the symptoms.


                                                                                          WATER INTOXICATION


                                                                                Also known as water poisoning

                                           This is a disruption to the brain caused by drinking to much water.

This is very rare and whilst it might be very difficult to consume to much water it does happen and death can occur due to                                                                                                       excessive intake of fluid .

Drinking to much water can increase the amount of water in the blood this can dilute the electrolytes, and especially sodium in                                                                                                         the blood.


This is very common in sports people or endurance training but it does occur in people with mental health issues .

On one occasion because an athlete was not properly rehydrated ,his sodium levels fell below130mm0l/1 he then developed

                                                       water on the brain this is known as hydrocephalus .

                                                    developed a hernia in his brain stem and this lead to his death .

Overhydration happens when someone drinks more than there kidneys can get rid of via urine .

A build up of fluid in the brain is called cerebral edema which can effect the brain stem leading to central nervous disfunction .

                                                               In severe cases this can lead to seizures ,brain damage and comas .



                                                                                            Confusion disorientation



                                                                                                     double vision

                                                                                             difficulty breathing

                                                                                                muscle cramps

                                                                    not being able to identify sensory information

                                                    in rare circumstances swelling of the brain which can be fatal.